Is Pepper Spray Illegal in Australia? Comprehensive Guide

Introduction – Is pepper spray illegal in Australia?

When it comes to personal safety, one of the first devices that often comes to mind is pepper spray. Globally recognised for its effectiveness, it’s a common choice for self-defence. However, the legality of carrying and using pepper spray varies widely across the world. This article is designed to provide an in-depth understanding – is pepper spray illegal in Australia, along with a glance at other self-defence tools permitted in the country.

The primary keyword, ‘is pepper spray illegal in Australia’, is the main focus of this piece, and will be thoroughly explored. The secondary keywords will also play a significant role, helping to provide a comprehensive overview of the subject matter. So, let’s get started in unravelling the truth about pepper spray in Australia.

What is Pepper Spray and How Does it Work?

Pepper spray, also known as OC spray (from “Oleoresin Capsicum”), is a lachrymatory agent — a compound that stimulates the eyes to produce tears. It’s a powerful substance that can incapacitate an individual when sprayed in their eyes or inhaled. The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, including chillies.

When sprayed into the eyes, pepper spray causes immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty breathing, runny nose, and coughing. The duration of its effects can vary from person to person, but typically can last from 20 to 90 minutes. Though it can cause severe discomfort, it’s generally not lethal and is considered a non-lethal self-defence tool.

Despite its effectiveness, the legal status of pepper spray varies globally. In some regions, it’s completely legal, whereas others have tight restrictions or outright bans on its use. So, what about Australia?

Is Pepper Spray Illegal in Australia?

The question “is pepper spray illegal in Australia” isn’t a straightforward one to answer. The legality of pepper spray in Australia is dependent on the individual state and territory laws. In some areas, it’s considered a prohibited weapon, while in others, it’s legal under specific circumstances.

In general, the use, possession, or sale of pepper spray is highly regulated in Australia. Most states and territories classify it as a prohibited weapon, which means you need a lawful excuse or a permit to possess it. Unlawful use of pepper spray can potentially lead to criminal charges.

While this might seem stringent, it’s important to remember that these laws are in place for the safety of the general public. However, it also means that residents must be aware of the legal alternatives available for self-defence.

Is pepper spray illegal in australia

Pepper Spray Laws by State: A Deeper Look

Is Pepper Spray Legal in WA?

“Is pepper spray legal in WA?” is a common query among Western Australians. In Western Australia, pepper spray is deemed legal and is considered a controlled weapon instead of a ‘prohibited weapon’. This implies that pepper spray can be carried and utilized in Perth or elsewhere in Western Australia for self-defence purposes, given there are reasonable grounds to expect its need.

This could be applicable for individuals who have legitimate concerns about assault or intimidation, such as those who have previously been victims of violent crimes committed by known individuals. However, a critique of this law is that it only extends protection to those who have already faced some form of violence, neglecting those who haven’t yet been assaulted. This is especially pertinent for women and more vulnerable individuals who may feel a general need for such protection.

Is Pepper Spray Legal in QLD?

In Queensland, the law is less lenient. The answer to “is pepper spray legal in QLD?” is a resounding no. In QLD, pepper spray is classified as a prohibited weapon, making it illegal to carry for self-defence.

In Queensland, under section 50(1) of the Weapons Act 1990, the harshest punishment for the use or possession of pepper spray is a 7-year jail term or 300 penalty units. Pepper spray is classified as a ‘firearm’ under Schedule 2 of the same Act. It specifically refers to any object typically referred to as a weapon capable of discharging a noxious, corrosive or irritant substance such as powder, gas, or chemical that can cause injury or death when aimed.

Furthermore, section 35 of the Weapons Act 1900 stipulates that you must have a valid license and registration to possess pepper spray. Failing to comply with these regulations can lead to a 2-year prison sentence or 100 penalty units for acquiring pepper spray without the required permit. A legitimate reason is required for the possession of pepper spray in order to obtain a license.

A legitimate reason for possessing a weapon like pepper spray, as per section 11 of the Weapons Act 1990, can be for sport or target shooting, recreational activities, job-related needs, weapon collection or study, or any other reason deemed acceptable under the regulations.

Is Pepper Spray Legal in Victoria?

Turning our attention to Victoria, the law is similar to QLD. Pepper spray is considered a prohibited weapon, making it illegal for residents to carry for self-defence.

In Victoria, the possession or utilization of pepper spray is unlawful, with the only exemption being approval from the Chief Commissioner or the Governor in Council Exemption Order under the purview of the Control of Weapons Act 1990 (Vic) and Control of Weapons Regulations 2021 (Vic).

Pepper spray is classified as a ‘banned weapon’ in Victoria. The list of prohibited weapons includes any harmful discharge items, such as capsicum spray, designed or modified to release an offensive, harmful, or irritating liquid, powder, gas, or chemical, with the intent to disable, incapacitate, or harm another individual.

Should you be apprehended with pepper spray in Melbourne, the potential penalties include imprisonment or a substantial fine. The most severe punishment for possessing or using pepper spray in Victoria, as stated in section 5AA of the Control Weapons Act 1990 (Vic), is a 2-year jail term or 240 penalty units ($43,617.60).

Is Pepper Spray Legal in NSW?

In New South Wales you can get a pepper spray permit, but obtaining one is not a simple process. It requires a legitimate reason and a thorough background check. Misuse of the permit can lead to severe penalties, including fines and imprisonment.

How to Obtain a Pepper Spray License in New South Wales

Whether for dramatic displays, artifact assembly for a museum, wildlife control or scientific explorations, you may still be denied a permit by the Commissioner, regardless of meeting the above conditions, if the following apply:

  • Over the past decade, you have been convicted of a specified crime, including but not limited to firearms or weapon possession, drug-related crimes, public disorder or attacks on law enforcement, stalking, abduction, actual bodily harm leading to penalties such as imprisonment, community service orders, good behaviour bonds, or fines exceeding $500, sexual offences, fraud, theft, dishonesty, robbery, affray, terrorism, involvement with criminal organizations or consorting.
  • In the past ten years, you have been or are currently under an Apprehended Violence Order (unless the AVO has been revoked).
  • You are currently under a good behaviour bond, Community Correction Order or conditional release order stemming from any of the listed offences.
  • You are under a weapons prohibition order.
  • You are a person who must register according to the Child Protection (Offenders Registration) Act 2000.
  • The Commissioner believes that you pose a threat to public safety and issuing a permit would be against the public interest, based on any criminal intelligence report or other criminal information available.

According to Section 12 of the Weapons Prohibition Act 1998 (NSW), the following offences are defined:

  • If a permit to own or use pepper spray is issued to you for a genuine reason and that reason ceases to exist, you are obligated to notify the Commissioner in writing within seven days.
  • Possessing or using pepper spray for any purpose other than the genuine reason the permit was granted is illegal.
  • Both offences could result in a maximum penalty of a $5,500 fine.

New South Wales offers an amnesty period for surrendering prohibited weapons. However, it is crucial to seek advice from lawyers to prevent the risk of committing any criminal offences.

Is Pepper Spray Legal in South Australia?

In South Australia, the law prohibits the possession or use of pepper spray, categorising it as a ‘dangerous article’. This term encompasses ‘self-protecting sprays’, which are defined in clause 5 of the Summary Offences Regulations 2016 (SA) as devices or instruments meant to temporarily or permanently disable or harm individuals through the release of an offensive or irritant substance. The legal consequences for owning pepper spray in this region can be severe, with the harshest punishment being 18 months in jail or a $7,500 fine under section 21C(2) of the Summary Offences Act 1953 (SA). The penalties escalate if the offence takes place on or around licensed premises, with the potential for 2 years imprisonment or a fine up to $10,000, as per section 21C(3) of the same act.

Is Pepper Spray Legal in Tasmania?

Pepper spray usage and possession in Tasmania is deemed illegal, as per section 15C(1) of the Police Offences Act 1935 (Tas), unless there’s a lawful excuse. Lawful excuses encompass involvement in legal sports, recreation, or entertainment, lawful collection, display, or exhibition, religious practices, or pursuing a lawful job, duty, or activity. The harshest punishment for carrying or using pepper spray in Tasmania is a 2-year jail term and/or 50 penalty units. This law doesn’t apply to police officers in their line of duty or anyone who has received a written exemption from the Commissioner.

Alternatives to Pepper Spray in Australia

Given the legal restrictions of pepper spray in most parts of Australia, it’s essential to consider alternatives that are legal and can provide a sense of security.

  • Self-Defence Training: Enrolling in self-defence courses such as Krav Maga, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, or basic self-defence workshops can equip you with essential skills and boost your confidence.
  • Tactical Illumination Devices: High-powered tactical flashlights can be employed to momentarily impair an attacker’s vision, especially in dimly lit environments.
  • Safety Mobile Applications: Various apps available for smartphones can send alerts to friends or authorities during emergencies, share your whereabouts, or even produce a loud alarm sound.
  • Stun Equipment: Subject to local legalities, stun devices such as stun guns or tasers may be permitted. These gadgets can temporarily immobilize an attacker without inflicting long-term damage.
  • Whistles: These simple yet effective instruments, when blown loudly, can draw attention and discourage an attacker.
  • Defensive Sprays: Legal in certain areas, non-pepper based defensive sprays can serve as an alternative. They induce temporary unease or confusion but are less harsh than pepper sprays.
  • Umbrellas or Walking Aids: Common items like umbrellas or walking sticks can be utilized defensively to maintain a safe distance from an assailant.
  • DIY Deterrents: In a bind, common items like hairspray, perfume, or deodorant can serve as a brief deterrent, albeit their effectiveness is somewhat limited.


Another alternative is an airhorn. The loud noise produced by an airhorn can attract attention and potentially scare off an attacker. Another option is a personal safety alarm, which emits a high-pitched sound that can be heard from a distance. These devices are legal to carry in all states and territories. Lastly, consider carrying a tactical flashlight. Not only can this tool be used to illuminate dark areas, but it can also temporarily disorient an attacker if shone directly into their eyes.


Chirpie is an innovative, user-friendly device designed for personal safety. It’s a small, wearable personal safety alarm that emits a loud, shrill noise when activated, aiming to deter potential attackers and attract attention. Offered in both battery operated and rechargeable versions, Chirpie – the personal panic alarm – is completely legal to use in Australia.

Other Self-Defence Tools and Their Legality in Australia

When considering self-defence options, it’s crucial to understand the legality of various tools in your local area.

Is Mace Legal in Australia?

“Mace” is often used interchangeably with “pepper spray.” However, traditional mace is a tear gas, not a pepper spray. In Australia, it’s considered a prohibited weapon, just like pepper spray.

Can I Carry a Taser in Australia?

The answer to “Can I carry a taser in Australia?” is generally no. Tasers are also considered prohibited weapons in most Australian jurisdictions.

Are Self-Defence Keychains Legal in Australia?

Self-defence keychains can be a grey area. While they aren’t explicitly banned, any device designed to cause harm could potentially be considered a weapon under Australian law. Therefore, it’s crucial to check specific local laws before carrying a self-defence keychain. Personal Safety Keyrings typically feature a mix of tools such as a mini alarm, a sharp point for striking, and occasionally a small defensive spray.

What Self-Defence Items Are Legal in Australia?

Given the legal restrictions on many self-defence items, you might wonder what self-defence items are legal in Australia. Aside from personal alarms and devices like Chirpie, other legal self-defence items include tactical flashlights, self-defence apps, and martial arts techniques. Remember, the best self-defence is awareness and avoidance of potentially dangerous situations whenever possible.

Avoiding unsafe areas

The act of consciously observing and practicing situational awareness can play a pivotal role in significantly reducing the risk of encountering danger. This concept of situational awareness involves being acutely mindful of your immediate surroundings, taking note of the people, objects, and situations that are happening around you. You wouldn’t enter a dark alleyway voluntarily at night, just as you wouldn’t willingly put yourself in any other potentially dangerous situation. It’s important to plan your routes in advance, especially when travelling at night. Stick to well-lit, populated areas whenever possible and avoid shortcuts through isolated areas. By doing so, you can significantly reduce the risk of encountering danger.

It’s also crucial to avoid distractions that could potentially compromise your safety. One common distraction in today’s digital age is your mobile phone. When you’re walking alone, particularly in unfamiliar or less populated areas, it’s advisable to keep your phone in your pocket and your attention focused on your environment. This allows you to be more aware of potential risks and respond more quickly if necessary.

Another key aspect of situational awareness is trusting your instincts. Your gut feelings or instincts are often based on subtle cues that your conscious mind may not immediately recognize. If you find yourself in a situation or location that gives you a sense of unease or feels unsafe, it’s best to trust those instincts.

In such scenarios, the most advisable course of action is to leave immediately. There’s no need to justify or second-guess your feelings. Your safety is paramount, and if something doesn’t feel right, it’s better to err on the side of caution and remove yourself from the potentially dangerous situation as quickly as possible.

Conclusion: Why is pepper spray illegal in Australia

In conclusion, the question “is pepper spray illegal in Australia” doesn’t have a one-size-fits-all answer. The legality of pepper spray varies by state, with most considering it a prohibited weapon. While this might seem frustrating for those seeking a means of self-defence, it’s crucial to remember that there are legal alternatives available.

Whether it’s a personal safety alarm, a device like Chirpie, or even a tactical flashlight, there are ways to protect yourself that comply with Australian law. Stay safe, stay informed, and remember that the best defence is always prevention.

Remember, knowledge is power. Knowing the law not only keeps you within your rights but also helps you make informed choices about your personal safety.

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